Lord Adair Turner is a British businessman and academic and was Chairman of the Financial Services Authority until its abolition in March 2013. He is the former Chairman of the Pensions Commission and the Committee on Climate Change, as well as the former Director-General of the Confederation of British Industry. In April 2013 he became a Senior Fellow of the Institute for New Economic Thinking and wrote a book, "Between Debt and the Devil: Money, Credit, and Fixing Global Finance". He is now Chairman of the Institute, and, since early 2016, has chaired the Energy Transitions Commission. In 2015, he was co-author of the report that launched the Global Apollo Programme, which calls for developed nations to commit to spending 0.02% of their GDP for 10 years, to fund co-ordinated research to make carbon-free baseload electricity less costly than electricity from coal by the year 2025.